Full Specifications and Features
Full Specifications and Features
- Sensor Type
- 1.0"-type (13.2 mm x 8.8 mm) Exmor RS™ CMOS sensor, aspect ratio 3:2
- Number of Pixels (Effective)
- Approx. 20.1 Megapixels
- Lens type
- ZEISS® Vario-Sonnar® T* Lens, 10 elements in 9 groups (9 aspheric elements including AA lens)
- F-number (Maximum Aperture)
- ND Filter
- Auto/On (3 steps)/Off
- Focal length (f=)
- f = 8.8-25.7 mm
- ANGLE OF VIEW (35 MM FORMAT EQUIVALENT)
- 84 deg-34 deg (f = 24-70 mm)
- Focus Range (From the Front of the Lens)
- iAuto: AF (W: Approx. 5cm (0.17 ft.) to Infinity, T: Approx. 30cm (0.99 ft.) to Infinity) / Program Auto: AF (W: Approx. 5cm (0.17 ft.) to Infinity, T: Approx.30cm (0.99 ft.) to Infinity)
- Optical Zoom
- Clear Image Zoom (Still Image)
- 20 M Approx. 5.8x/10 M Approx. 8.2x/5.0 M Approx. 11x/VGA Approx. 44x
- Clear Image Zoom (Movie)
- 4K: 4.35x, HD: Approx. 5.8x
- Digital Zoom (Still Image)
- 20 M Approx. 11x/10 M Approx. 16x/5.0 M Approx. 23x/VGA Approx. 44x
- Digital Zoom (Movie)
- Digital Zoom Approx. 11x
- Screen Type
- 7.5 cm(3.0 type)(4:3)/1,228,800 dots/Xtra Fine/TFT LCD
- Adjustable Angle
- Up by approx. 180 degrees, down by approx. 45 degrees
- Display Selector (Finder/Lcd)
- Auto/EVF (Manual)/Monitor (Manual)
- MS Assist Magnification
- 5.3x, 10.7x
- Screen Type/Number of Dots
- 0.39-type electronic viewfinder(OLED), 2,359,296 dots
- Field Coverage
- Approx. 0.59x with 50 mm lens at infinity, -1m-1(diopter) (35 mm equiv.)
- Eye Point
- Approx. 20 mm from the eyepiece, 19.2 mm from the eyepiece frame at -1m-1(diopter) (CIPA standard)
- Dioptre Adjustment
- -4.0 to +3.0m-1
- Brightness Control
- Auto, Manual (5 steps)
- Image Processing Engine
- Yes (BIONZ X)
- STEADYSHOT (STILL IMAGE)
- STEADYSHOT (MOVIE)
- Yes (Intelligent Active Mode, Optical type with electronic compensation, Anti-Rolling type)
- Focus Type
- Fast Hybrid AF(phase-detection AF/contrast-detection AF)
- Focus Mode
- Single-shot AF, Automatic AF, Continuous AF, DMF, Manual Focus
- Focus Area
- Wide (315 points [phase-detection AF], 25 points [contrast-detection AF], Zone, Center, Flexible Spot [S/M/L], Expanded Flexible Spot, Lock on AF [Wide/Zone/Center/Flexible Spot [S/M/L]/Expanded Flexible Spot)
- LOCK ON AF
- Light Metering Mode
- Multi Pattern, Centre Weighted, Spot, Entire Screen Avg, Highlight
- Exposure Compensation
- +/- 3.0EV, 1/3EV step
- ISO Sensitivity (Still Image)(Recommended Exposure Index)
- Auto(ISO125-12800, selectable with upper/lower limit),125/160/200/250/320/400/500/640/800/1000/1250/1600/2000/2500/3200/4000/5000/6400/8000/10000/12800 (Extendable to ISO80/100),Multi-Frame NR:Auto(ISO125-12800), 200/400/800/1600/3200/6400/12800/25600
- ISO Sensitivity (Movie)
- Auto:(ISO125Level-ISO12800Level, selectable with upper / lower limit), 125/160/200/250/320/400/500/640/800/1000/1250/1600/2000/2500/3200/4000/5000/6400/8000/10000/12800
- Minimum Illumination (Movie)
- Auto: 1.2 lux(Shutter Speed 1/30")
- White Balance Modes
- Auto, Daylight, Shade, Cloudy, Incandescent, Fluor.: Warm White, Fluor.: Cool White, Fluor.: Day White, Fluor.: Daylight, Flash, Underwater Auto, C.Temp./Filter, Custom
- WB Micro Adjustment
- Shutter Speed
- iAuto (4" - 1/2000)/Program Auto (30" - 1/2000)/Manual (Bulb, 30" - 1/2000)/Aperture Priority (30" - 1/2000)/Shutter Priority (30" - 1/2000)
- Electronic Shutter
- iAuto (4" - 1/32000)/Program Auto (30" - 1/32000)/Manual (30" - 1/32000)/Aperture Priority (30" - 1/32000)/Shutter Priority (30" - 1/32000)
- iAuto (F1.8/F11 (W) ) / Program Auto (F1.8/F11 (W) ) / Manual (F1.8/F11 (W) ) / Shutter Priority (F1.8/F11 (W) ) / Aperture Priority (F1.8/F11 (W) )
- Image Control
- Contrast, Saturation, Sharpness, Creative Style, Colour Space (sRGB/Adobe RGB), Quality (RAW/RAW&JPEG (Extra fine, Fine, Standard)/JPEG (Extra fine, Fine, Standard)
- Noise Reduction
- Long exposure NR: On/Off, available of shutter speeds longer than 1/3 sec., high ISO NR:Normal/Low/Off, Multi Frame NR: Auto, ISO 200-25600
- Dynamic Range Functions
- Off, Dynamic Range Optimizer (Auto/Level 1–5), Auto High Dynamic Range (Auto Exposure Difference, Exposure difference Level (1.0–6.0EV, 1.0EV step))
- Shooting Mode
- AUTO(Intelligent Auto/Superior Auto), Program Auto, Aperture Priority, Shutter Speed Priority, Manual Exposure, MR (Memory Recall) [body 3 sets/memory card 4 sets], Movie Mode (Program Auto, Aperture Priority, Shutter Speed Priority, Manual Exposure),HFR Mode (Program Auto, Aperture Priority, Shutter Speed Priority, Manual Exposure), Panorama, Scene Selection
- Scene Selection
- Portrait, Sports Action, Macro, Landscape, Sunset, Night Scene, Handheld Twilight, Night Portrait, Anti Motion Blur, Pet Mode, Gourmet, Fireworks, High Sensitivity
- Continuous Shooting Speed (maximum) (with max. recording pixels)
- Continuous Shooting Hi: approx. 24fps, Continuous Shooting Mid: approx. 10fps, Continuous Shooting Low: approx. 3.5fps
- 10 s. / 5 s / 2 s / 3 or 5 consecutive shots with 10 s 5 s or 2 s delay selectable / Bracketing shots with 10 s 5 s or 2 s delay selectable
- Drive Modes
- Single, Continuous shooting (Hi/Mid/Lo), Self-timer, Self-timer (cont.), Cont.-bracketing, Single-bracketing, White balance bracketing, DRO bracketing
- Panorama (Shooting)
- Sweep Panorama
- Picture Effect
- [Still Image]:Toy camera, Pop Colour, Posterization, Retro Photo, Soft High-key, Partial Colour, High Contrast Mono., Soft Focus, HDR Painting, Richtone Monochrome, Miniature, Watercolour, Illustration; [Movie]:Toy camera, Pop Colour, Posterization, Retro Photo, Soft High-key, Partial Colour, High Contrast Mono.
- Creative Style
- Standard, Vivid, Neutral, Clear, Deep, Light, Portrait, Landscape, Sunset, Night Scene, Autumn Leaves, Black & White, Sepia, Style Box
- Picture Profile
- off/PP1-PP7(Black Level, Gamma Movie, Still, Cine1-2, ITU709, ITU709 [800%], S-Log2), Black Gamma, Knee, Colour Mode, Saturation, Colour Level, Colour Phase, Colour Depth, Detail, Copy, Reset)
- Number of Recognized Scenes
- Still Image: Superior Auto: 44/iAuto: 33, Movie: 44
- Flash Mode
- Auto / Flash On / Slow Synchro / Rear Sync / Flash Off
- Flash Type
- Built-in, manual pop-up
- AF Illuminator
- Auto / Off
- Flash Range
- ISO Auto: Approx.0.4m to 10.2m (1.31 ft. to 33.46 ft.) (W) / Approx. 0.4m to 6.5 m (1.31 ft. to 21.33 ft.) (T), ISO 12800: up to Approx. 20.4m (66.93 ft.) (W) / Approx. 13.0m (42.65 ft.) (T)
- Compatible Recording Media
- Memory Stick Duo, Memory Stick PRO Duo, Memory Stick PRO Duo(High Speed), Memory Stick PROHG Duo, Memory Stick Micro, Memory Stick Micro (Mark2), SD Memory Card, SDHC Memory Card(UHS-I), SDXC Memory Card(UHS-I), microSD Memory Card, microSDHC Memory Card, microSDXC Memory Card
- Recording Format
- [Still Image]:JPEG(DCF Ver.2.0, Exif Ver.2.31,MPF Baseline compliant), RAW (Sony ARW 2.3 format); [Movie]: XAVC S, AVCHD format Ver.2.0 compatible
- Recording Format (Movie Audio)
- XAVC S:LPCM 2ch, AVCHD:Dolby Digital(AC-3) 2ch(Dolby Digital Stereo Creator)
- Colour Space (Still)
- sRGB, Adobe RGB
- Still Image Number of recorded pixels (Image Size)
- 3:2 mode: 20M (5,472 x 3,648)/10M (3,888 x 2,592)/5M (2,736 x 1,824), 4:3 mode: 18M (4,864 x 3,648)/10M (3,648 x 2,736)/5M (2,592 x 1,944)/VGA,16:9 mode: 17M (5,472 x 3,080)/7.5M (3,648 x 2,056)/4.2M (2,720 x 1,528),1:1 mode: 13M (3,648 x 3,648)/6.5M (2,544 x 2,544)/3.7M (1,920 x 1,920), Sweep Panorama: Wide (12,416 x 1,856/5,536 x 2,160), Standard (8,192 x 1,856/3,872 x 2,160)
- Movie Recording Mode (NTSC)
- NTSC/PAL Selector: [NTSC] AVCHD: 24 M FX (1,920x1,080/60i)/17M FH (1,920x1,080/60i), XAVC S 4K: 30p 100 M (3,840x2,160/30p)/30p 60 M (3,840x2,160/30p)/24p 100 M (3,840x2,160/24p)/24p 60 M (3,840x2,160/24p), XAVC S HD: 60p 50 M (1,920x1,080/60p)/60p 25 M (1,920x1,080/60p)/30p 50 M (1,920x1,080/30p)/30p 16 M (1,920x1,080/30p)/24p 50 M (1,920x1,080/24p)/120p 100 M (1,920x1,080/120p)/120p 60 M (1,920x1,080/120p)
- Movie Recording Mode (PAL)
- NTSC/PAL Selector: [PAL] mode AVCHD: 24 M FX (1,920x1,080/50i)/17 M FH (1,920x1,080/50i), XAVC S 4K: 25p 100 M (3,840x2,160/25p)/25p 60M (3,840x2,160/25p), XAVC S HD: 50p 50 M (1,920x1,080/50p)/50p 25 M (1,920x1,080/50p)/25p 50 M (1,920x1,080/25p)/25p 16 M (1,920x1,080/25p)/100p 100 M(1,920x1,080/100p)/100p 60 M (1,920x1,080/100p),
- (Recording) NTSC/PAL Selector: [PAL] mode XAVC S HD: 50p 50M (1920x1080/250fps), 50p 50M (1920x1080/500fps), 50p 50M (1920x1080/1000fps)/25p 50M (1920x1080/250fps), 25p 50M (1920x1080/500fps), 25p 50M (1920x1080/1000fps), NTSC/PAL Selector: [NTSC] mode XAVC S HD:60p 50 M (1,920x1,080/240fps), 60p 50 M (1,920x1,080/480fps), 60p 50 M (1,920x1,080/960fps)/30p 50 M (1,920x1,080/240fps), 30p 50 M (1,920x1,080/480fps), 30p 50 M (1,920x1,080/960fps)/24p 50 M (1,920x1,080/240fps), 24p 50 M (1,920x1,080/480fps), 24p 50M (1,920x1,080/960fps) (Sensor Readout Number of effective pixels) Quality Priority: 240fps/250fps (1,824x1,026), 480fps/500fps (1,824x616), 960fps/1000fps (1,244x420)/Shoot Time Priority: 240fps/250fps (1,824x616), 480fps/500fps (1,292x436),960fps/1000fps (912x308)
- Still Image Number of recorded pixels (Image Size) during Movie
- 16:9 mode: 17M (5472×3080)/7.5M (3648×2056)/4.2M (2720×1528)
- Proxy Recording
- Yes (1280 x 720 [Approx.9 Mbps])
- Input and Output Terminals
- Multi/Micro USB Terminal, Hi-Speed USB (USB 2.0), Micro HDMI
- NFC forum Type 3 Tag compatible, One-touch remote, One-touch sharing
- Yes(IEEE802.11b/g/n(2.4GHz band))
- Power Source
- DC 3.6 V (supplied battery) / DC 5.0 V (supplied AC Adaptor)
- Battery System
- Rechargeable Battery Pack NP-BX1
- Power Consumption (Camera Mode)
- Approx. 2.6 W with LCD monitor and approx. 3.0 W with viewfinder (CIPA standard)
- USB Charge/USB Power Supply
- Yes (Shooting, Playback)
- BATTERY LIFE(STILL IMAGES)(CIPA)
- Monitor: Approx. 220/Approx. 110min, ViewFinder: Approx. 210/Approx. 105min.
- BATTERY LIFE(MOVIES ACTUAL SHOOTING)(CIPA)
- Monitor: Approx. 35min., ViewFinder: Approx. 35 min.
- BATTERY LIFE(MOVIES CONTINUOUS SHOOTING)(CIPA)
- Monitor: Approx. 65 min., ViewFinder: Approx. 65min.
- PlayMemories Camera Apps
- Shooting Functions
- Eye AF, Face Detection, Face Registration, Still Image Recording (during movie recording), Smile shutter, Grid Line, Quick Navi, Digital Level Gauge (pitch and roll), WB Bracket, DRO Bracketing, MF Assist, Peaking, Zebra, Marker Display, Micref Level, Step Zoom/Quick Zoom, Self-portrait timer, TC/UB, Photographer Name & Copyright, ISO Auto Minimum Shutter Speed, PC Remote Control, Gamma Disp. Assist, [Mov]AF Track Sensitivity, [Mov]AF Drive Speed, Set File Name, My Menu
- Playback Functions
- BRAVIA Sync (Control for HDMI), 9/25-frame index view, Auto Orientation, Slide Show, Forward/Rewind (Movie), Delete, Protect, Motion Shot Video, Beauty Effect, Photo Capture, Rating, Automatic Image Rotation
- TRILUMINOS Color
- 4K image output
- Operating Temperature
- 0 degrees C. - +40 degrees C. / 32 degrees F. - 104 degrees F.
- Exif Print, PRINT Image Matching (PIM3)
Size & Weight
- DIMENSIONS (W X H X D) (APPROX.)
- 101.6 x 58.1 x 41.0 mm (4 in. x 2 3/8 in × 1 5/8 in.)
- WEIGHT (CIPA COMPLIANT)
- Approx. 299 g (10.5 oz) (Battery and Memory Stick Duo are included) / Approx. 272g (9.6 oz) (Body Only)
- WHAT'S IN THE BOX
- Rechargeable Battery Pack NP-BX1, AC Adaptor, Micro USB cable, Wrist Strap, Strap Adaptor, Instruction Manual
What's In The Box
- Rechargeable Battery Pack NP-BX1, AC Adaptor, Micro USB cable, Wrist Strap, Strap Adaptor, Instruction Manual
ZEISS® Vario-Sonnar T* lens for precision imaging
The large-diameter ZEISS® Vario-Sonnar® T* lens offers uncompromised images across its full optical range of 24–70 mm. The wide F1.8–2.8 aperture allows for fast shutter speeds and blur-free shooting, as well as beautiful background bokeh. Flare and ghosting is also dramatically reduced thanks to the high-performance T* coating.
Exmor RS® CMOS sensor for speed
The 20.1 effective MP 1.0-type stacked CMOS image sensor with DRAM chip enables up to 960fps super slow motion shooting and super high-speed Anti-Distortion Shutter up to 1/32000 sec. that are too fast for human eyes to perceive. Moreover, 315-point focal plane phase detection AF provides for extraordinarily precise autofocusing and tracking performance.
High-speed BIONZ X™ image processing engine
The updated BIONZ X image processing engine achieves even higher-speed processing performance than its predecessor, to capture fast-moving subjects at up to 24fps. The enhanced image processing algorithm lets you capture more natural images, with less noise across the sensitivity range while maintaining fine detail.
Dense, widespread 315-AF-point coverage
Focus on your subject faster with 315 phase-detection AF points across a wide area of the image (approx. 65% of the frame). The Hybrid AF system combines these densely-packed, ultra-fast phase-detection focus points with the precision of contrast detection AF, for dependable focusing even when tracking small or fast-moving subjects.
Real-time Eye AF with excellent tracking performance
High-precision Real-time Eye AF combined with high-performance AF tracking provides helpful assistance with portrait shooting. It's effective even when the subject is looking down and away, or when faces are backlit or in partial darkness, and it keeps the focus on moving subjects' eyes when using the AF-C setting.
Autofocus in just 0.05 sec.
Combining the speed of phase-detection AF and accuracy of contrast-detection AF, the Fast Hybrid AF system can acquire focus in as little as 0.05 sec, to track subjects precisely and allow you to capture the moment perfectly.
Focus Area Registration
Pre-register, then instantly recall, a custom focusing area. Ideal for shooting sports like athletics, motorsport or tennis, or any time a subject moves regularly into an ideal composition in your frame. By simply assigning your AF area selection to a custom button you can prioritise that area, for focusing when your subject enters it, with just a single button tap.
Smooth-tracking continuous shooting up to 24 fps
The RX100 V can perform high-speed continuous shooting at the full 20.1 MP resolution and up to 24fps with AF/AE tracking. In addition, the camera reduces blackout on the electronic viewfinder and LCD screen, and this reduction makes for smoother monitoring of moving subjects and easier shooting of fleeting moments.
Silent shooting for sensitive situations
You can mute the camera’s shutter sound by making the following camera settings: "Shutter type: Electronic" and "Audio signals: Off". This way, you can shoot quiet scenes and noise-sensitive subjects in silence, even during continuous shooting.
AF-A mode automatically switches focus mode
In AF-A mode, the camera automatically switches between AF-S mode (Single AF: locks focus while the shutter button is pressed halfway) and AF-C mode (Continuous AF: keeps focusing on subjects while the shutter button is pressed halfway), according to such changes as sudden subject movement and brightness as detected throughout the shooting frame.
1/32000 s Anti-Distortion Shutter
Up to 1/32000 s Anti-Distortion Shutter works to minimize image distortion caused by the rolling shutter phenomenon. The extraordinarily fast shutter speed also allows you to produce photos with background defocusing using a large aperture setting even under extremely bright conditions at a maximum of EV19.
Brilliant 4K movies
In shooting 4K (QFHD resolution: 3840 x 2160) movies with full pixel readout without pixel binning, the camera collects approx. 1.7 times as much information as is required for basic 4K movie output. This oversampling effect results in images of outstanding resolution with reduced moiré and jaggies.
Introducing Fast Hybrid AF for movies to the RX100 series
Fast Hybrid AF keeps images sharp and clear during the shooting of high-resolution 4K movies , thanks to the system's focal plane phase-detection AF sensor that enables accurate focusing and tracking performance.
Photo Capture creates clear stills from movies
The Photo Capture function lets you select a moment from a 4K movie in playback and save it in the form of a highly detailed still image file of over 8 megapixels. Likewise, you can create a 2-megapixel still image file from a Full HD movie that has been recorded.
Up to 960fps for incredible slow motion
Using the mode dial to select HFR, it’s easy to create super slow motion movies containing split-second moments of action. Choose shooting frame rates of 960/1000fps, 480/500fps, or 240/250fps (NTSC/PAL) , depending on speed of a moving subject. Image quality is nearly Full HD at 240/250fps, and HD at 480/500fps in Quality Priority mode. An optional end trigger mode pre-records from 3 to 7 seconds before the MOVIE button is pressed, letting you capture even unpredictable moments decisively.
Bright XGA OLED Tru-Finder™ shows what you aim for
The retractable Tru-Finder electronic viewfinder's resolution is equivalent to 2359K dots. The bright, self-illuminating OLED display offers high contrast, excellent for previewing shots and setting adjustments. EVF eyepiece optics are treated with ZEISS® T* Coating to reduce unwanted reflections and ensure corner-to-corner visibility.
Control ring for advanced photography
A convenient lens-mounted control ring allows you to operate pro-style manual control such as selecting shutter speed, aperture, and more for added creative command — another feature making this camera an ideal choice for serious photographers.
180˚ tiltable LCD screen for flexible composition
The high-resolution three-inch type screen with tilt capability is perfect for taking selfies and framing of otherwise impossible overhead or low-angle shots. You can use it in high/low shooting positions for greater flexibility in capturing creative compositions.
Custom button for creative convenience
The custom (C) button can be programmed to control any of up to 62 different camera functions, to adapt the camera's capabilities to your shooting style. By assigning a frequently-used function or setting to this button you can recall it again instantly — for faster, more intuitive camera operation.
Shoot almost anywhere with wide ISO sensitivity
Capture crisper images, even in low light, with sensitivity up to ISO 12800. The Auto ISO mode can automatically determine optimal settings, or manually select expanded ISO settings as low as ISO 80. In addition to Auto ISO, you can specify minimum limits for shutter speed to prevent blur even in low light situations.
Dual Rec still shooting during movie recording
Shoot still images of 17 MP while recording a movie. The camera enables you to capture impressive high-quality stills even in movie-shooting. Auto Dual Rec release function lets the camera automatically take photos during movie recording. Select frequency of Auto Dual Rec release from high/standard/low settings.
Make sure your images are correctly framed, even when shooting starry skies or other dark scenes. The image on the display or viewfinder can be temporally boosted to assist with composition using a simple menu selection or custom button assignment, without compromising the final captured image.
My Menu your way
With My Menu, you can register menu items for instant recall and customize menus. You can also make button assignments for up to 30 functions to retool the camera interface for your shooting preferences.
MF Assist and enhanced peaking function
Increase focusing accuracy, or fine-tune manual focusing with these focusing assistants. Manual Focus (MF) Assist magnifies any part of the image area to enable more precise adjustment, while the enhanced peaking function highlights in-focus regions for quick and easy focus confirmation. Both the magnification and peaking colours are customizable and perfect for intricate focusing requirements such as during macro shooting.
Lock-on AF for enhanced photo opportunities
Simply press the shutter button halfway to activate Lock-on AF . It automatically adjusts the AF target frame size to match the subject size, improve tracking performance, and take full advantage of every photo opportunity.
High quality movies in XAVC S or AVCHD format
Designed for professional videography, as well as efficient file sizes, XAVC S recording provides minimal image noise, even in scenes full of movement, at up to 4K resolution and 100 Mbps. For less demanding applications and easy sharing, the AVCHD format is also available.
Diverse movie functions supporting pro-style usage
In addition to simple point-and-shoot movie making, advanced recording functions include Picture Profile settings to adjust colour space, gamma and other image characteristics. With S-Log2 capability, video can be captured with a wide dynamic range for post-production and camera matching purposes. In addition, timecode and proxy recording capabilities allow for integration into professional productions and workflows.
File Name Setting
The camera lets you change the first three characters of any file name from "DSC" (by default) to three characters of your choice. This simplifies file management and is especially valuable when working with multiple cameras for various assignments.
One-touch remote/One-touch sharing
With one-touch remote, a smartphone or tablet functions as a viewfinder/remote control. One-touch sharing transfers photos/videos to the device. Just install an Imaging Edge Mobile app via Wi-Fi to an NFC-enabled Android device, then touch the device to the camera to connect them. QR code compatibility allows connection with non-NFC smartphones.
Capture One (for Sony)
Capture One Express (for Sony) is a free award-winning image editing software that provides high-end image quality RAW development, easy management of your image files, and powerful editing tools. Capture One Pro (for Sony) can be bought for even more editing tools and tethered shooting capability.
Works with iMovie and Final Cut Pro X
This product is compatible with Final Cut Pro X and iMovie.
Imaging Edge™ Remote, Viewer, and Edit
Elevate your photography with Imaging Edge desktop applications. Use "Remote" to remotely control shooting; "Viewer" to quickly preview, rate and select photos from large image libraries; and "Edit" to develop RAW data into high-quality photos for delivery. Get the best from Sony RAW files, and manage your productions more efficiently.